- Anti fungal activity. An essential isolated from Aegle marmelos has anti fungal activity.
- Hypoglycemic activity. Aegle marmelos extract has hypoglycemic property on animal models.
- Thyroid hormone regulator. Aegle marmelos leaf extract reduces T (3) concentration in male mice with hyperthyroidism.
- Anti diarrhoeal activity. Methanolic extract of unripe fruit has anti diarrhoeal activity against castor oil induced diarrhoea.
- Anti oxidant property. Hydro alcoholic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos induces glutathione S-transferase, DT-diaphorase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in lung, glutathione S-transferase, DT-diaphorase and superoxide dismutase in fore-stomach, and DT-diaphorase and superoxide dismutase in lung. Hence, it can act as chemopreventive against chemical carcinogenesis.
- Anti ulcer property. Pyranocoumarin is one of the active principal isolates from Aegle marmelos seeds shows significant protection against pylorus-ligated and aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in rats.
- Cures Irritable Bowel syndrome. This plant extract has cures irritable bowel syndrome on human subject.
- Anti inflammatory activity. Alkaloid fraction isolated from Adathoda vasica shows anti inflammatory activity.
- Anti allergic activity. Vasicinone, an alkaloid present in the leaves and roots of Adhatoda vasica (Acanthaceae) possesses potent antiallergic activity in mice, rats and guinea pigs.
- Anti tussive activity. Adathoda vasica extract exhibit anti tussive activity in anaesthetized guinea pigs and rabbits and in unanaesthetized guinea pigs.
- Anti asthma activity. Alkaloids from Adhatoda vasica shows pronounced protection against allergen-induced bronchial obstruction in guinea pigs.
- Tonic. It is a tonic for the liver, digestion and neutralises toxins.
- Menstruation. It regulates the menstrual cycle and relieves the pain.
- Blood Purifier. Benefits the liver, gall bladder and stomach.
- Diabetes. It regulates sugar and fat metabolism.
- Colitis, inflammations and ulcers. Has been used for inflammation and colitis and ulcers. Aloe with turmeric is applied as a paste on the inflamed area, joints to relieve pain and reduce swelling. It is used externally for burns, cuts and traumatic wounds. It helps the healing process.
- Cooling eyelids. Aloe gel when applied on the eyelids brings soothing effect and cooling effect.
- Laxative. Has been used as a powerful laxative.
Asafoetida – Ferula foetida
- Stimulant. This aromatic substance, which is a gum extract from a tree, is a stimulant. It relieves spasms. It is a good carminative, natural laxative. It also relieves gas in the large intestine. It is a powerful digestive agent, which removes food stagnation from gastrointestinal tract. It cleans the intestinal flora.
- Anthelmintic. It has been used for roundworms and threadworms.
- Pain. Externally, asafoetida can be applied as a paste for abdominal pain, arthritic pain and painful joints.
- Anti inflammatory activity. Allium sativum extract has anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting il- 10 in inflammatory bowel disease.
- Hypocholestrolemic. Allium sativum extract reduces the excess serum lipids level in hypercholestolemic patients.
- Prophylactic. It is used for the prophylactic treatment.
- Anti carcinogenic. Diallyl disulfide is one of the constituents, which has good anti carcinogenic activity against aflatoxin B induced carcinogenisis. It also induces apoptosis process.
- Anti oxidant property. Aged garlic extract has anti oxidant property on sickle cell anaemia patient.
- For Cardio vascular disease. Aged garlic extract increases nitric oxide production by activating neuronal constitutive nitric oxide synthases.
- Anti Diabetic property. Allium sativum extract has anti diabetic and hypoglycemic property.
- Hypotensive. Allicor is one of the tablets prepared form Allium sativum reduces the diastolic pressure. Hence, it is used for the treatment for mild and moderate arterial hypertension.
- Immuno enhancer. Aged garlic extract reduces the immuno suppression in psychological induced immuno impair.
- Anti microbial activity. Garlic extract has anti bacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori. It has anti viral, anti bacterial and anti fungal activity.
- Anti hepato toxicity. Garlic extract has anti hepato toxic activity against acetaminophen induced toxicated animal model. It also reduces DNA damage in aflatoxin B induced toxicated animal model.
- Anthelmintics. Allium sativum is used as anthelmintics.
- Anti arthritic. Alisate is one of the garlic preparations, which is useful for Rheumatoid arthritis.
- Carminative. Garlic extract act as a carminative.
- Digestive. It also acts as a digestant.
- Anti duodenal ulcer. Garlic is an effective treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection, which is major factor in the duodenal ulcer.
Azardirachta indica is commonly called as Neem. It is widely used for the treatment of various diseases.
- Anti malarial activity. Gedunin, one of the active principles present in Neem bark has anti malarial activity.
- Immuno modulatory activity. Stem bark of Azardirachta extract has Immunomodulatory activity in time and dose dependent manner on human subject. An oil fraction from Neem extract enhances macrophages and lymphocytes through cell mediated mechanism.
- Anti inflammatory activity and Anti arthritic. Nimbidin, one of the active principles present in Neem has anti-inflammatory activity on animal models. Hence, it has anti arthritic activity against formalin induced ankle joint arthritis.
- Anti Diabetic activity. Neem oil isolated from Seed extract lowers the blood glucose levels in normal and Alloxan induced Diabetic rats.
- Hepato protective activity. Dried leaves extract has hepato protective activity on carbon tetra chloride induced toxicated rats.
- Anti pyretic. Neem extract has anti pyretic activity on rabbit models with pyrogen induced hyperpyroxia.
- Hypotensive property. Crude extract of Neem leaves has hypotensive property on animal models.
- Anti oxidant property. Neem extract has anti oxidant property on N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induced rats.
- Diuretic activity. Nimbidin has diuretic activity in human subject.
- Anti ulcer. Water extract of Neem bark has anti ulcer on animal models.
- Anti dermatophytic activity. Neem extract has anti dematophytic activity in vivo and in vitro condition. For eradication of head lice.
Basil [Tulsi] – Ocimum sanctum.
Basil is perhaps the most sacred plant of India.
- Coughs. It is an effective diaphoretic and febrifuge in most colds, flu and lung problems. It removes excess Kapha from the lungs and nasal passages and promotes sensory acuity.
- Memory. It strengthens the nerve tissue, increasing memory. It is taken as a beverage with honey for promoting clarity of mind.
- Antiviral. Anti bacterial properties. Has been used as an antiviral and antibacterial.
Berberry – Berberis species.
- Anti toxin. Berberry is a bitter herb with a special heating potency, which is its special property to destroy Ama or toxins in the body. It is specific for cleansing the liver and regulating its function.
- Diabetes. With twice the amount of turmeric it can be used in diabetes. For controlling Pitta it can be used with other bitter tonics like neem leaves.
Action on hepatic amoebiasis
One of the herbal formulations, which contain Boerhavia diffusa extract, had a maximum cure rate of 73% at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day in hepatic amoebiasis reducing the average degree of infection (ADI) to 1.3 as compared to 4.2 for sham-treated controls.
- Immunomodulator. It enhances humoral immunity with out affect the T cell count in animal models.
- Minerals. This plant contains high amount of copper, iron, magnesium, manganese and zinc minerals.
- Hepatoprotective activity. Methanol and Chloroform extracts of root and Ariel parts of this plant have hepato protective activity against carbon tetra chloride induced intoxicated rats.
- Anti inflammatory activity. Bark, stem, and root part of this plant posses anti inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced oedema in rats.
Boswellia (Boswelya, Salai Guggul) is an Ayurvedic herb that contains anti-inflammatory triterpenoids called boswellic acid. Boswellic acid and its derivatives have anti-carcinogenic, anti-tumor, and anti-hyperlipidemic activities. Boswellic acids are effective anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agents, for osteo arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, soft tissue rheumatism, and low back pain.
- Anti-inflammatory. Boswellic acids have inflammatory action by inhibit the leukotriene biosynthesis in neutrophilic granulocytes by a non-redox, noncompetitive inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase.
- Asthma. Due to its anti inflammatory activity it can be used for asthma also.
- Anti cancer. Boswellic acids inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in Hep G2 cells via a caspase-8 dependent pathway. Hence, it can useful for the treatment of some types of cancers.
- Analgesic. It is found to exhibit marked sedative and analgesic effects in animal models.
Anti arthritic activity. Boswellia extract has arthritic activity. It is known that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can cause a disruption of glycosaminoglycan synthesis, which can accelerate the articular damage in arthritic conditions.
A recent in vivo study examined Boswellia extract and ketoprofen for their effects on glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Boswellia significantly reduced the degradation of glycosaminoglycans compared to controls, whereas ketoprofen caused a reduction in total tissue glycosaminoglycan content.
Animal studies performed in India showed ingestion of a defatted alcoholic extract of Boswellia decreased polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration and migration, decreased primary antibody synthesis, and caused almost total inhibition of the classical complement pathway.
Brahmi [Gotu kola] – Hydrocotyle asiatica
- Memory. The leaf of brahmi looks like the two hemispheres of the brain. It acts upon the brain tissue. It is a very effective aid for developing memory and intelligence. It stimulates the brain tissues, thereby expanding understanding and comprehension. It relieves stress and calms the mind. It helps the flow of energy in the brain. It acts on the mind and higher consciousness.
- Sleep. It promotes sound sleep and peaceful alert awakening.
- Decongestant. It has also been used as a decongestant.
Calamus root – Acorus calamus
- Improves the memory. It is a rejuvenative for the brain and the nervous system, where it purifies and revitalizes.
- Cough. It is used in chronic cough and asthma as it acts as a bronchodilator and acts as a chest decongestant.
Cardamom – Elettaria cardamomum
- 1. Digestion. It is a digestive stimulant, relieves gas and freshens the breath.
- Stimulant. It refreshes the mind and is a heart stimulant. It strengthens the heart and lungs.
- Pain. It is a pain reliever and it sharpens the mind.
Hepato protection. This study was investigated the effect of Cassia auriculata leaf extract administrates orally on alcohol induced liver damaged animal models. Treatment with Cassia auriculata leaf extract at a dose of 250 mg / kg(-1) body weight and 500 mg / kg(-1) body weight to rats.
Cassia auriculata leaf extract can offer protection against free radical mediated oxidative stress in experimental hepatotoxicity.
- Anti hyperglycemic and anti lipidimic activity. Cassia auriculata flower extract (CFEt), at doses of 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 g/kg body weight for 30 days, suppressed the elevated blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic rats. Cassia auriculata at 0.45 g/kg was found to be comparable to glibenclamide.
Castor oil – Ricinus communis
- Laxative. Has been used for chronic constipation. This drug neutralises toxins and relieves gas and constipation.
- Antirheumatic. It is a natural pain reliever and has been for disorders such as arthritis, sciatica, chronic backache and muscle spasms and gout.
- Ophthalmic disorders. It has a useful role in a variety of infective, inflammatory and degenerative ophthalmic disorders.
- Anti fungal property. Cinnamomum camphora oil fraction has anti fungal activity.
Cinnanamon – Cinnamomum zeylanicum
- Detoxyfying. It is a good detoxifying herb that promotes digestion and has a natural cleansing action. It also stimulates sweating.
- Coughs. It is good for the relief of colds, coughs. Cinnamon, cardamom, ginger and clove are used together as a tea to relieve cough and congestion.
- Pain Reliever. It is a pain reliever.
Cloves – Caryophyllus aromaticus
- Pain. Clove is a natural pain reliever. Oil of cloves is used to relieve toothache.
- Cough. Cloves will alleviate coughs, congestion, colds and sinus problems.
- Anti oxidant property. Tender Cocus nucifera water showed antioxidant property.
- Anti diabetic property. Cocos nucifera flour shows hypoglycaemic property in diabetic human subjects.
- Anti microbial property. The decoction of Cocos nucifera has anti microbial activity.
Commiphora mukul is one of the herbs, which is used for arthritic and cardiac disease due to its anti-inflammatory and hypolipidimic activity. Oleogum resin present in the ethyl acetate extract of this plant has these activities.
- Hypolipidimic activity. It reduces the blood cholesterol level in all types of animal models and humans. Hence, it is a promising drug to treat the cardiac diseases, which associate with serum cholesterol such as atherosclerosis.
- Anti Arthritic and anti inflammatory activity. A very important use of the gum resin from C. mukul has been in the treatment of various clinical types of arthritis, on the basis of its anti-inflammatory potential. It has anti-inflammatory activity in experimental arthritis induced by mycobacterial adjuvant.
Coriander – Coriandrum Sativum
- Digestion. It aids digestion. Coriander is a natural diuretic and it may be taken when one has a burning sensation while passing urine. It is also useful for gas, indigestion, nausea and vomiting.
- Dermatitis. It may be applied as a pulp to skin to relieve burning sensation. It also helps to purify blood.
- Intragastric activity. Cumin and Coriander increased gastric secretion in injured stomachs.
- Hypoglycemic property. Coscinium fenestratum has hypoglycemic property.
Cumin Seeds – Cuminum cyminum
- Digestion. It aids the secretion of digestive juices. Roasted cumin powder is effectively used in intestinal disorders such as diarrhoea or dysentery.
- Pain. Cumin also relieves pain and cramps in the abdomen.
- Anti fungal activity. Cumaldehyde, a main constituent of Cuminum cyminum seed oil, showed strong fungitoxicity against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger.
- Hypolipidemic activity. Cuminum cyminum extract reduces plasma and tissue cholesterol, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and triglycerides on Allaxon induced diabetic model.
- Anti Diabetic activity. Oral administration of Cuminum cyminum for six weeks in the dose of 250 mg/kg reduces plasma glucose level and increases total heamoglobin and glycosylated heamoglobin level. It also reduces blood glucose level in glucose loaded hyperglycemic rats.
- Anti carcinogenic property. Cuminum cyminum seeds decreases the incidence of both B[a]P-induced neoplasia and 3’MeDAB-induced hepatomas.
- Anti bacterial activity. Cuminum cyminum seed oil has anti bacterial activity against a wide range of bacterial species at low concentration.
- Cardio protective. Ethereal extract of Cumin inhibits arachidonate-induced platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 production from exogenous (14C) arachidonic acid (AA) in washed platelets. Hence, it can be act as a cardio protective.
- Anti diabetic activity. Curcuma longa rhizome extract showed blood glucose lowering activity in experimental, induced – diabetic rats.
- Anti chlostroleamic property. Curcumin, one of the active principles reducing the serum levels of cholesterol and lipid peroxides in human subjects at the dose of 500 mg/kg.
- Gastric and duodenal anti ulcer activity. The gastric and duodenal anti-ulcer activity of an ethanol extract of Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizome in rats following oral administration of 500 mg/kg of the extract is described. The extract produced significant anti-ulcerogenic activity in rats.
- Antihepatotoxic activity. The antihepatotoxic activities of the constituents of the crude drug ukon, the rhizomes of Curcuma longa in vivo and in vitro in rat hepatocytes, are described. Curcuminoids were shown to possess significant
- Hypocholesterolaemic property. Curcumin, one of the active principles reduces lipid peroxides and total cholesterol levels and increases HDL levels on human subjects.
- Anti inflammatory activity. Curcumin produces better anti-inflammatory activity on human subjects.
- Anti cancer. Ethanolic extract and curcumin produce remarkable symptomatic relief in-patient with external cancerous lesions.
- Anti fungal activity. Turmeric oil inhibits dermatophytes in vivo and in vitro condition.
- Anti mutagenic activity. Curcumin has anti mutagenic and anti promotogenic activity.
- Anti oxidant activity. Curcuma longa water extract contains a heat stable protein, which prevents promoter induced lipid peroxidation in dose dependent manner.
- Hepato protective activity. Curcuma longa rhizome extract has hepato protective activity.
- Anti leishmanial activity, Methanolic extract of Desmodium gangeticum shows anti leishmanial activity in the dose of 50 micro grams / ml.
- Anti writhing activity. Aqueous extract shows severe anti-writhing activity in the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing assay.
- Antibacterial activity. This plant tested for antibacterial potential exhibited significant inhibition against five and moderate activity against three strains of the 12 bacteria tested.
Anti diabetic property. The ethanolic extract of E. ribes burm was investigated in streptozotocin (40 mg/kg, IV, single injection) – induced diabetes in rats. Twenty days of orally feeding the extract (200 mg/kg) to diabetic rats resulted
in significant decrease in blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, and triglycerides levels when compared to pathogenic diabetic rats.
Antispermatogenic effect. Daily subcutaneous administration of Embetin compound at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight to male albino rats for 15 or 30 days revealed an inhibition of:
- epididymal motile sperm count,
- fertility parameters such as pregnancy attainment and litter size, and
- the activities of the enzymes of glycolysis and energy metabolism.
- Antioxidant property. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction from aqueous acetone extract has anti oxidant property.
- Anti inflammatory activity. Cardamom oil isolated from Elettaria has Anti-inflammatory activity on animal models.
- Analgesia activity. Cardamom oil has analgesic activity on mice models.
- Antispasmodic activity. Cardamom oil has antispasmodic activity by blocking muscarinic receptor (2).
- Gastro protective activity. Ethanol extract of Emblica officinalis has gastro protective activity on animal models.
- Antioxidant property. A standardized extract of Emblica officinalis was found to have a long-lasting and broad-spectrum antioxidant activity.
- Hypolipidemic activity. The flavonoids present in the Emblica officinalis inhibiting the hepatic HMG Co A reductase. Hence, it has hypolipidemic activity on animal models.
- Anti tumor activity. Aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis has anti tumor activity by inhibiting the cell cycle enzyme CDC 25 phosphatase.
- Hypoglycemic property. Emblica officinalis has reduces the blood glucose levels on animal models.
- Hepato protective property. The extract of this plant shows hepato protective activity on carbon tetra chloride induced animal models.
- Anti microbial activity. Alcohol extract shows better anti microbial activity against a wide range of microorganisms.
- Anti-inflammatory activity. Methanol fraction from water extract shows anti-inflammatory activity on animal models.
- Cardio tonic activity. It is used as cardio tonic. The alcohol extract of fruits significantly increased the glycogen level in the isoproterenol‐induced animal models.
- Contains Vitamin C. Emblica officinalis extract contains vitamin C.
Fennel seeds – Foeniculum vulgaris
- Digestion. Fennel seeds have been widely used for digestion, stopping cramping and dispelling flatulence. They can be taken roasted after meals. They combine well with cumin and coriander as three cooling spices. It is excellent for digestive weakness in children or in the elderly.
- Calming. They are calming to the nerves, their aroma acts upon the mind and promotes mental alertness for urinary problems, and they combine well with Coriander.
Fenugreek – Trigonella foenumgraeceum
- Convalescence and debility. Particularly used for nervous, respiratory and reproductive systems. As gruel it will increase milk flow and promote hair growth.
- Boils, ulcers and hard to heal sores. Can be used externally for boils, ulcers and to heal sores.
- Digestion. It can be added to curries as a digestion promoting spice. Fenugreek sprouts are used as a medicinal vegetable for indigestion, dysfunction of liver and seminal debility.
- Anti oxidant activity. The pre-treatment of animals with asafoetida recovered the antioxidant level.
- Anti carcinogenic activity. Pre-treatment of Ferula asafoetida reversed the induced ODC activity and DNA synthesis.
Ginger – Zingiber officinalis
- Rheumatism. It is found to exhibit anti rheumatic activity in patients with rheumatic disorders, because it works as a dual inhibitor of eicosanoid biosynthesis.
- Anti inflammatory. This plant posses anti inflammatory in animal models.
- Anti ulcer activity. The orally administered acetone extract at 1000 mg/kg and zingiberene, the main terpenoid from acetone extract, at 100 mg/kg significantly inhibited gastric lesions by 97.5 and 53.6%, respectively. 6-Gingerol, the pungent principle, at 100 mg/kg significantly inhibited gastric lesions by 54.5%. These results suggest that zingiberene, the terpenoid and 6-gingerol are important constituents in stomach medications containing ginger.
- Gastroprotective activity. This study demonstrate that the extract of Z. officinalis in the dose of 500 mg/kg orally exert highly significant cytoprotection against 80% ethanol, 0.6M HC1, 0.2M NaOH and 25% NaCl induced gastric lesions.
- Gastrointestinal motility. The effect of ginger root (Zingiberis Rhizoma) on gastrointestinal motility was examined based on its ability to enhance charcoal meal transport in mice. Oral administrations of the acetone extract of ginger (which contains volatile oils and bitter substances) at 75 mg/kg,  – shogaol at 2.5 mg/kg, or a  –,  – or – gingerol at 5 mg/kg enhanced the transport of a charcoal meal. It enhances the gastrointestinal motility.
- Migraine headache. Administration of ginger may exert abortive and prophylactic effects in migraine headache without any side effects.
- Stimulant. It is a stimulant, carminative and is given in dyspepsia, gastritis and flatulent colic.
- Rubefacient. Externally it is a rubefacient.
Glycyrrhiza glabra is a traditionally used herb for the treatment of various diseases.
- Anti microbial activity. The root powder of Glycyrrhiza glabra exhibited anti microbial activity against various pathogens in vitro condition due to the presence of isoflavanoids.
- Antioxidant. The glabridin, an isoflavin present in the root powder inhibit the formation of thiobabituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid peroxides, and cholesteryl linoleate hydroperoxide (CLOOH). It also inhibits the consumption of beta-carotene and lycopene during oxidation of endogenous constituents of LDL.
- Anti histaminic. The aqueous extract of this plant has anti histaminic property.
- Estrogenic. It is used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms due to its estrogenic property. The active principle for the estrogenic activity is Beta-sitosterol present in the root powder.
- Choleretic. It has choleretic activity on animal models by inducing the bile flow. It may be due to the presence of glycyrrhizic acid (glycyrrhizin)
- Immunostimulant. It has immunostimulant action on mice models due to the presence of glucoarabinogalactan-protein (gp-GsB2a) isolated from hemicellulosic fractions.
Anti inflammatory activity
This plant possesses anti-inflammatory activity. The significant anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extracts of Streblus asper, Gmelina arborea, and Citrullus colocynthis against carrageenan-induced inflammation of the hind paw in albino rats are reported.
- Energy. It energises the body and helps to flush the kidneys. This substance creates heat in the body.
- Ulcers and blood purifying. It is good for healing internal and external ulcers. It is used as a good medium for many substances. Honey is an excellent blood purifier and is also good for the eyyes and teeth.
- Coughs. It alleviates cold, cough and congestion.
- Anti-inflammatory activity. Petroleum ether extract of roots of this plant shown to have anti-inflammatory activity.
- Anti tumor activity. Flower extract has anti tumor property.
- Larvicidal activity. Hexane fraction of Kaempferia galanga shows good larvicidal action.
- Anti tumor activity. Extracts of Kaempferia galanga rhizomes has anti tumor activity.
Karela – Memordica Charantia
Its main ingredients are lecithin, charantin and momordicine.
- Gastrointestinal. It has been used as an emetic, purgative, in piles, as an antispasmodic, in leprosy and in jaundice.
- Diabetes Mellitus. It has been used to regulate blood sugar levels.
- Tonic. Lotus seeds and root are tonic and rejuvenating foods. The seeds work more as a cardiac tonic and as a seminal tonic. The root has stronger astringent and haemostatic properties. It calms the mind and subdues restless thoughts and dreams.
- Speech. Lotus seeds help in improving speech; helps stop stuttering and improve concentration.
- Healing. It is a good astringent and haemostatic with the power to heal tumours.
Mint – Mentha species.
There are three main mints, Peppermint, Spearmint and Horsemint.
- Relaxing. They have a mild soothing action on the nerves and digestion, which helps relax the body and clear the mind and senses, hence their widespread popularity and usage.
- Colds. They are mild, cooling diaphoreticscfor common colds and flu.
- Gastrointestinal. Peppermint is the most stimulating and best one to improve digestion. Spearmint is more relaxing and better in diuretic action. Horsemint has stronger antispasmodic properties, useful in difficult menstruation. Other mints like catnip have similar properties. Mints contain large amount of ether, with an action that is soothing, cooling, clarifying and expanding.
- Pharmacological activities. The aqueous extract of this plant extract contains anti inflammatory, diuretic, and anti plasmodium activity.
This has been traditionally used as a toothbrush and in toothpastes, mouth washes, soaps and medicines. It has been used to wash wounds in water boiled with neem leaves. It repels insects. It has been used to treat or prevent a variety of ailments including intestinal worms, malaria, encephalitis and meningitis. It has been used to
treat scabies, external fungi, smallpox and head lice. It has been used also for controlling diabetes, epilepsy, ulcers, headaches and fevers.
- It has anti-bacterial properties and leaves the skin cool and refreshed. Neem shampoo controls dandruff and itchy scalp. It provides a natural way to fight cavity and gum disease.
- Neem has been shown to control psoriasis, eczema, acne, prickly heat and other pitta related skin problems.
Nutmeg – Myristica fragrans
- Tonic. When taken with milk, it serves as a tonic to the heart and brain. Nutmeg is also effective in treating lack of control over urination, general weakness, diarrhoea and gas and for loss of appetite, liver and spleen disorders.
- Sexual debility. It is also used to alleviate sexual debility.
- Sleep It is a relaxant and it reduces natural sleep, thus it is helpful in insomnia.
- Anti diabetic activity. Ocimum sanctum plant extract posses hypoglycemic and anti hyperglycemic activity.
- Immunomodulatory activity. Ocimum sanctum seed oil appears to modulate both humoral and cell-mediated immune responsiveness and these immunomodulatory effects may be mediated by GABAergic pathways.
- Cardio protective activity. Hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum sanctum produces cardio protective activity against isoprotanol-induced myocardial infarction.
- Anthelmintic. The essential oil of Ocimum sanctum shows potent anthelmintic activity in the Caenorhabditis elegans model.
- Anti oxidant property. Extracts of fresh leaves and stems of Ocimum sanctum posses anti oxidant property.
- Anti-inflammatory activity. Extract of fresh leaves and stems of Ocimum sanctum exhibit anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity.
- Anti ulcer activity. The fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum L. is found to possess significant antiulcer activity against aspirin, indomethacin, alcohol, histamine, reserpine, serotonin and stress–induced ulceration in experimental animal models.
- Thyroid hormone regulator. Ocimum sanctum leaf extract significantly reduces T (4) concentration in Hyperthyroidism.
- Anti carcinogenic activity. Water extract posses anti carcinogenic property on animal model.
- Anti bacterial activity. Ocimum sanctum extract shows anti bacterial activity against human Gram positive and negative bacteria.
- Analgesic. Aqueous and Methanol extract shows analgesic property.
- Anti pyretic. Aqueous and Methanol extract shows anti pyretic activity.
Onion – Allium cepa
- Digestion. Its action is hot when taken internally and it stimulates digestion and sexual energy.
- Skin and fever. If applied as a poultice on skin boils, it helps them burst. In high fever, grated raw onion wrapped in piece of cloth is applied on forehead or abdomen.
- Cholesterol. Onions help in reducing the cholesterol and it is a good heart tonic.
- Coughs. Has been used in asthma, cough, spasms, nausea and vomiting when taken with honey
- Pain. Helps relieve pain when applied with turmeric.
- Anti-inflammatory activity. Alcoholic extract of Oroxylum indicum stem bark produces anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced paw edema in rats.
- Anti microbial activity. Methylene chloride extracts of stem bark and roots have anti bacterial activity against wide range of bacterial species.
- Anti mutagenic activity. Methanolic extract has anti mutagenic activity against heterocyclic amines.
Pepper – Piper nigrum
- Digestive stimulant. It increases the secretion of digestive juices and cleanses the alimentary canal. It is used for constipation, dry haemorrhoids, gas and loss of appetite.
- Anthelmintic. Used with honey to combat worms in the large intestine.
- Cough. Black pepper is used to reduce phlegm. With honey, it is powerful expectorant and mucus cleanser, drying up secretions.
- Urticaria and swelling. Prepared in ghee, it heals inflamed surfaces, such as urticaria and erysipelas. It helps to relieve swelling. Helps in dermatitis. Used externally, it helps ripen boils and promote suppuration.
- Immuno enhancer. The polysaccharide fractions from Piper nigrum act as immuno enhancer.
- Anti bacterial activity. The oil fraction from Piper nigrum has anti microbial activity.
- Bio availability enhancer. Piperine is one of the active principles, which is used as bioavailability enhancer by helping in efficient permeability across the barriers.
- Hepato protective activity. Piperine has hepato protective activity against tert-butyl hydroperoxide and carbon tetrachloride induced toxicated animal model.
- Anti oxidant property. Phenolic amides compounds present in the Piper extract has anti oxidant property.
- Anti Colon cancer. Piper nigrum extract protects the colon by decreasing the activity of beta-glucuronidase and mucinase.
- Anti-inflammatory activity. Piperine has anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema, cotton pellet granuloma, and croton oil–induced granuloma pouch in animal model.
- Hepato protectve activity. An active principle present in the alcohol extract has hepato protective activity.
- Immunostimulatory activity. Alcohol extract of leaves has immunostimulatory activity.
- Anti Hepatitic activity. Alcohol extract of roots and rhizomes has anti viral activity.
- Anti diabetic activity. Alcohol extract has anti diabetic property activity on alloxan induced diabetic rats.
- Anti amoebic activity. Alcohol extract of root parts has anti amoebic activity.
- Anti gastric ulcer. Water decoction of Piper longum has anti ulcerogenic activity. The antiulcerogenic effect seemed to be due to the augmentation of mucin secretion and decreased cell shedding.
- Immuno stimulatory activity. Piper longum root extract has immuno stimulatory activity.
- Hepato protective activity. Piperine is one of the active principles, which has anti hepato toxicity against tert-butyl hydroperoxide and carbon tetrachloride induced toxicated mice.
- Anti duodenal ulcer. Piper longum extract has anti duodenal ulcer activity.
- Bio availability enhancer. Piperine enhances bioavailability by promoting rapid absorption from gastro intestinal tract or by preventing the drug from being metabolised in its first passage.
- Antibronchospasm. Piper longum extract protect Guinea pigs against antigen induced bronchospasm.
- Anti asthmatic. Piper longum extract controls childhood asthma.
Pomegranate – Punica granatum
- Tonic. It is an excellent tonic. The juice is good for promoting digestion and all parts have stomachic properties, which can be augmented with small amounts of cinnamon and cloves.
- Antihelminthic. Taken as a decoction with a little cloves, followed by a purgative every second or third day helps dispel worms.
- Sores. The paste can be used externally for sores, ulcers, haemorrhoids.
- Anti bacterial activity. The isolation of novel sesquiterpene, 7alpha-hydroxy-6, 11-cyclofarnes-3 (15)-en-2-one, from the aerial parts of Premna oligotricha shows anti microbial property against gram-positive bacteria.
- Anti diabetic property. Alcoholic and aqueous extract of this plant produced significant anti diabetic property in rabbit models.
- Anti hypercholestrolaemic activity. Decoction of bark of this plant significantly reduced the serum cholesterol levels.
- Anti microbial activity. This plant extract produces anti microbial activity against gram-positive bacteria species.
This plant has various medicinal properties.
- Anti inflammatory activity. Petroleum ether extract of this plant roots possess anti-inflammatory activity in formaldehyde and adjuvant-induced rats paw arthritis. It has no significant analgesic activity at 150 mg/kg. This plant has a significant anti-inflammatory activity in both acute and sub acute inflammatory conditions.
- Anti arthritic. This can be useful for the treatment of rheumatism.
- Anthelmintic. It can act as an anthelmintic.
- Anti diabetic property. Hot water extract of these plant posses an active principle called mangiferin, which has anti diabetic activity in STZ induced diabetic model and human subjects.
- Antioxidant property. Stem and root parts of this plant have antioxidant property.
Sandal wood – Santalum album
- Calming. Sandalwood cools and calms the entire body and mind, with its influence spreading throughout the circulatory, digestive, respiratory and nervous systems. It relieves fever, thirst, burning sensation and stops sweating. A few drops of sandalwood oil will relieve heat and thirst, and is good for fever or overexposure to the sun.
- Anti-inflammatory. It is good for almost any inflammatory conditions and for cleansing the blood. Externally, the oil or paste can be used for most infectious sores or ulcers.
Senna Cassia acutifolia
- Purgative. Senna is a strong purgative. It has an irritant effect upon the intestinal membrane, and may cause griping, pain or nausea, along with liquid stools or diarrhoea.
Sesame seeds – Sesame indicum
- Tonic. Sesame seeds is a rejuvenative tonic and help the bones and teeth.
- Massage Oil. It forms the base for most of the medicated oils in Ayurveda.
Shatavari – Asparagus racemosus (Willd.)
- Gastrointestinal. The roots, leaves and their different extracts possess many pharmacological properties. They are demulcent, aphrodisiac, antiseptic, antidysenteric, diuretic, antidiarrheal, anticancer and gastric sedatives
- Diabetes. It is galactagogue, and hypoglycaemic and anticoagulant.
- Hormone controller. It has been used to regulate hormonal secretion. Shatavari acts as a galactogogue and is useful in lactation failure. It promotes lactation.
- Anti asthmatic. Improves the various parameters of pulmonary function in asthmatic subjects.
- Anti bronchitic. Solanum xanthocarpum extract has anti bronchitic activity on human subjects.
- Anti microbial activity. Non alkaloidal parts from the extract of solanum xanthocarpum have anti microbial activity against wide range of microorganisms.
Spirulina is an alga that has been one of the first photosynthetic life forms known. Spirulina was the food of Aztecs and has been eaten for centuries by the Kanembu people of central Africa. Spirulina thrives in natural alkaline lakes. Spirulina platensis is a single celled filamentous alga. Through photosynthesis it converts nutrients in to cellular matter. Spirulina has a rich array of nutrients. It contains 65-70% protein in the form of amino acids, 20% carbohydrates, 5% fats, 7% minerals and trace elements and 3% moisture.
Protein : Spirulina contains all essential and almost all non-essential amino acids. The protein is easily digested, as Spirulina has no hard cellulose cell wall.
Essential amino acid composition Non-essential Amino acids:
- Isoleucine 5.6% 1. Alanine 7.6%
- Leucine 8.7% 2. Arginine 6.9%
- Lysine 4.7% 3. Aspartic acid 9.8%
- Methionine 2.3% 4. Cystine 1.0%
- Phenyalanine 4.5% 5. Glutamic acid 14.6%
- Threonine 5.2% 6. Glycine 5.2%
- Valine 6.5% 7. Histidine 1.6%
- Proline 4.3%
- Serine 5.2%
- Tyrosine 4.8%
Fatty acids : these are required by the body for cholesterol normalization thus reducing hypertension and for prevention of many diseases and health problems. 10g Spirulina has an average of 225mg of essential fatty acids in the form of lenoleic and gammalenolenic acids (GLA). Studies have shown that GLA efficiency figures in many diseases. Other than mother’s milk Spirulina is the only dietary source of GLA.
Pigments: This helps make many enzymes necessary for regulating the body’s metabolism. There is ten times higher concentration of beta carotene (provitamin A), a pigment, in Spirulina than in carrot. Vitamin A is important in maintaining mucous membranes and for vision. Spirulina is rich in magnesium and iron as it contains Chlorophyll and Phycocyanin, both pigments.
Enzymes: These are catalysts for chemical changes in the body. Spirulina contains a number of enzymes. One is superoxide dismutase (SOD). This is found to quench free radicals and retard ageing.
Glycolipids and Sulpholipids: The three classes of lipids in Spirulina are called neutral lipids, Glycolipids and phosholipides. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) in USA found that Sulpholipids are remarkably active against viral infections including HIV.
Spirulina contains the following: calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, potassium, selenium, silica, zinc, vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Biotin, Inositol, Niacin (Vitamin B3), Vitamin B5, vitamin B6 and B12.
- Anti microbial activity. Bark extract possess anti microbial activity.
- Antimalarial, and antifungal activity. A bioactivity-guided fractionation of an extract of Terminalia bellerica fruit rind led to the isolation of two new lignans named termilignan and thannilignan (2), together with 7-hydroxy-3′, 4′ – (methylenedioxy)flavan (3) and anolignan B (4). All four compounds possessed demonstrable antimalarial, and antifungal activity in vitro.
- Anti microbial activity. Terminalia cheula has anti microbial activity against gram positive and gram-negative bacteria.
- Antioxidant property. Terminalia chebula was found to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and super oxide radicals in vitro. Hence, it has antioxidant activity.
- Anti diabetic property. It reduces the blood glucose in levels in animal models.
- Anti mutagenic. Acetone extract has anti mutagenic property on animal models due to the presence of poly phenol compounds.
- Wound healing property. Alcohol extract of leaves of Terminalia chebula enhances healing of rat dermal wounds.
- Anti anaphylactic action. Water-soluble fraction of Terminalia chebula has anti anaphylactic action by significantly inhibiting the histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells.
- Purgative. Oil fraction from Terminalia chebula has purgative action.
- Adaptogenic. Terminalia chebula has well adaptogenic activity.
- Anti cancer. It has anti cancer activity by inhibiting the cell viability, cell proliferation and induces cell death of malignant cell lines in dose dependent manner.
- Anti viral activity. It has anti HIV activity by inhibiting the enzyme HIV I integrase. It also decreases extra cellular hepatitis B virus virion.
- Gastro intestinal motility improver. It enhances gastro intestinal motility in animal models.
- Immunosuppressive Chebulagic acid, isolated form the extracts of Terminalia chebula fruits blocks the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated cytotoxicity. Chebulagic acid also inhibites the killing activity of CD8+ CTL clone at IC 50 value of 50 microM. Granule exocytosis in response to anti-CD3 stimulation is also blocked by CA.
- Anti amoebic activity. It has anti amoebic activity against Entamoeba histolytica in and in vitro conditions.
- Anti ulcer activity. It enhances the beta glucuronidase activity in the Brunners glands of duodenal ulcerated rats.
- Hypocholesterolaemic It significantly decreases the cholesterol content of liver and aorta in cholesterol induced hypercholesterolaemic rabbit models.
- Hepato protective activity. The anti hepatotoxic activity of ethanol extract of T. populnea administered orally to groups of rats was evaluated using the CCl 4 modal of liver injury. The action may be also to the presence of Quercetin – 7–0–rhamnoglucoside.
- Anti oxidant activity. Antioxidant activity of the aqueous (AET) and methanol extracts (MET) of the Thespesia populnea bark was investigated at a dose level of 500mg/kg in rats by inducing liver injury with carbon tetra chloride: olive oil (1:1). The extracts exhibited significant antioxidant activity was showed.
- Wound healing activity. The aqueous extract of T. populnea fruit showed significant wound healing activity in experimental animal model.
- Anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of T. populnea was showed the anti-inflammatory property
- Anti fertility. (+)-Gossypol was isolated from the bark of Thespesia populnea and tested for its ability to inhibit the fertility of male hamsters. Male hamsters of proven fertility were treated orally for 54 days with 40 mg/kg of (+)-gossypol, 40 mg/kg of racemic gossypol, was mated with estrous female hamsters during the fourth and seventh weeks of treatment. The racemic gossypol-treated animals were infertile when evaluated during both the fourth and seventh weeks of treatment.
- Anti inflammatory activity. Methanol extract of Tribulus terrestris shows anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting cyclooxygenase.
- Aphrodisiac property. It has aphrodisiac activity normal and castrated rats by increasing androgen hormone.
- Anti diabetic activity. Tribulus terrestris shows hypoglycemic activity in normal and alloxan induced diabetic animal models. It also reduces lipid peroxidation level and improves dextrose tolerence.
- Anti urolithiatic activity. Ethanolic extract of fruits shows anti urolithiatic activity in rats with artificially induced urolithiasis. It also completely prevents the stone formation in the dose dependent manner.
- Analgesic property. Tribulus terrestris extract exhibits significant analgesic activity.
- Anti microbial activity. Ethanolic extracts, crude alkaloid mixtures, and saponin mixtures from Tribulus terrestris exhibit anti microbial property against various bacteria and fungi.
- Diuretic activity. The aqueous extract of T. terrestris, in oral dose of 5g/kg elicited a positive diuresis, which was slightly more than that of furosemide. Z. mays aqueous extract did not result in significant diuresis when given alone in oral dose of 5g/kg, while combination of Z. mays and T. terrestris extracts produced the same extent of diuresis as that produced by T.terrestris alone. Na(+), K(+) and Cl(+) concentrations in the urine had also much increased. T. terrestris has long been used empirically to propel urinary stones.
Triphala Terminalia bellirica Roxb/Terminalia chebula Retz/ Emblica.
Triphala is a composite herbal preparation containing equal proportions of the fruits of three myrobalans, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia bellirica.
- Diabetes. Has been used as a hypoglycaemic agent.
- Detoxifier. Has been used as anti-aging, imparting immunity and improving mental faculties. It helps to detoxify the liver, restore digestion and purify blood.
- Weight. When consumed for a long period it has been used to help reduce excess weight.
- Colon cleansing. It promotes good colon health and acts as a laxative without causing cramps or irritation. It gently stimulates the intestinal walls and restores tone to the colon, thus helping in the elimination process, providing a colon cleansing effect.
- Healing. It helps in healing ulcers in cases of Pyoderma gangrenosum and in the treatment of Lipoma.
- Anti-oxidant. It has shown in-vitro anti-oxidant activity. It is effective in preventing superoxide-induced haemolysis of the red blood cells. It also prevents lipid peroxidation induced by Fe3+/ADP/Ascorbate system in liver mitochondria.
Turmeric – Curcuma longa
- Blood purifier. It is a natural antibiotic.
- Digestion and relieve congestion. It has a soothing action on respiratory ailments such as cough and asthma and congestion of the throat.
- Anti-arthritic. Helps as a painkiller.
- Diabetes. Helps regulate blood sugar.
Withania somnifera is a plant which drew the interest of many researchers in several countries, for the extremely important pharmacodynamic or pharmacotherapeutic properties.
- Anti inflammatory. Extract of this plant has the anti inflammatory activity in animal models. Oral administration of Withania somnifera prior to formalin injection, prevent the symptoms of inflammations in formalin induced inflammation in rats.
- Urotoxicity. One study revealed that administration of an extract from the plant Withania somnifera for five days along with cyclophosphamide reduced the CTX induced urotoxicity in rats
- Anti arthritic. It has anti arthritic properties